Skeletal Organization, Bone and Bone Markings

Organization of skeleton

Axial Skeleton


Hyoid bone


Ribs and Sternum

Appendicular Skeleton

Upper Appendicular

Shoulder girdle - clavicle and scapula

Arms - humerus, ulna, radius

Hands and Fingers - carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

Lower Appendicular

Pelvic girdle - coxa

Thighs - femur

Legs - tibia and fibula

Feet and Toes - tarsala, metatarsals, phalanges

General organization of bone

Diaphysis - the shaft of a bone, composed mainly of dense bone

Epiphysis - the heads of a bone, composed mainly of spongy bone

Articular Cartilage - covering at end of the epiphysis, composed of Hyaline cartilage

Marrow Cavity - open interior of a bone, lined by the endosteum

Endosteum - lining of the marrow cavity, composed of: an epithelial cellular layer with Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

Bone Marrow - adipose tissue and hemopoietic tissue in marrow cavity

Periosteum - covering around the outside of a bone, composed of Dense Irregular (Fibrous) Connective Tissue

Joint Capsule - continuation of the periosteum around a joint

Ligaments - continuation of the periosteum that connects bone to bone, composed of dense regular connective tissue

Tendons - continuation of the periosteum that connects bone to muscle, composed of dense regular connective tissue

Bone Markings

projections or elevations where tendons and ligaments attach

perforations or depressions where blood vessels and nerves pass


Process - any projection or bump

Ramus - an extension making an angle

attachments for tendons or ligaments

Trochanter - large, rough projection

Tuberosity - smaller, rough projection

Tubercle - small, round projection

Crest - prominent ridge

Line - low ridge

for joints

Head - expanded articular end

Condyle - smooth, rounded articular process

Trochlea - smooth, grooved articular process

Facet - small, flat articular process

Spine - pointed process


Fossa - shallow depression

Sulcus - narrow grove


Foramen - rounded passageway

Fissure - cleft

Meatus - canal

Sinus - chamber


David G. Ward, Ph.D.  Last modified by wardd 23 May, 2006