Body Chemistry

Elements in the body:

Hydrogen (H) (62%)

Oxygen (O) (26%)

Carbon (C) (10%)

Nitrogen (N) (1.5%)

Calcium (Ca)

Sodium (Na)

Potassium (K)

Chlorine (Cl)

Phosphorus (P)

Magnesium (Mg)

Iron (Fe)

Sulfur (S)

Iodine (I)

Each electron shell accommodates a certain number of electrons the number of electrons in the outer shell determines the property of each element

Molecular Bonds

Molecules are combinations of two or more atoms

        Covalent bonds connect atoms thru sharing of electrons

o        Non-polar bonds electrons are shared equally

o        Polar bonds electrons are not shared equally

o        Carbon is a critical component of biomolecules and is capable of forming four covalent bonds

        Hydrogen bonds connect atoms thru attraction between a hydrogen ion and a negatively charged site

        Ionic bonds connect atoms thru electrical attraction after one atom loses one or more electrons

 


Water

        The solvent property of water is due to the presence of polar molecules that lead to hydrogen bonds and that disrupt ionic bonds of solutes

 

 

        The fluidity of water is due to the hydrogen bonds that hold water together

Acids, Bases and Salts

Electrolytes in the body:

NaCl (sodium chloride)

KCl (potassium chloride)

CaCl2 (calcium chloride)

NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate)

MgCl2 (magnesium chloride)

Na2HPO4 (disodium phosphate)

Na2SO4 (sodium sulfate)

Common Ions:

Cations:

, K+, , Mg2+,

Anions:

, , HPO4-, SO42-

 


BioMolecules

contain carbon, hydrogen and usually oxygen

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

nucleosides

 


Carbohydrates

usually contain the ratio of 1C:2H:1O

        Monosaccharides - simple sugars with 3 to 7 carbon atoms


Lipids

usually contain the ratio of ~1C:~2H:<1O

        Fatty Acids - long chain of carbons with hydrogen attached and a carboxyl group (-COOH)

        Glycerol - a chain of three carbons that can attach to fatty acids

        Glycerides

 


Proteins

Contain amino groups (NH2)


Nucleosides and Nucleotides

nucleoside - composed of two subunits, ribose or deoxyribose attached to a nitrogenous base.

nucleotide - comprised of 3 subunits, ribose or deoxyribose attached to both a nitrogenous base and a mono-, di-, or triphosphate group

Nitrogenous Bases

o       Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil

o       Adenine, Guanine

RNA Nucleoside Triphosphates

        nitrogenous base attached to Ribose and three phosphate groups

o       RNA Adenine Nucleoside Triphosphate

(also referred to as Adenosine Triphosphate, ATP)

o       RNA Guanine Nucleoside Triphosphate

(also referred to as Guanosine Triphosphate, GTP)

o       RNA Cytosine Nucleoside Triphosphate

(also referred to as Cytidine Triphosphate, CTP)

o       RNA Uracil Nucleoside Triphosphate

(also referred to as Uridine Triphosphate, UTP)

o       ATP, ADP, AMP - Adenine + ribose + 1, 2, or 3 phosphate groups

o       GTP, GDP, GMP - Guanine + ribose + 1, 2, or 3 phosphate groups


 

DNA Nucleoside Triphosphates

        nitrogenous base attached to Deoxyibose and three phosphate groups

o       DNA Adenine Nucleoside Triphosphate

o       DNA Guanine Nucleoside Triphosphate

o       DNA Cytosine Nucleoside Triphosphate

o       DNA Thymine Nucleoside Triphosphate

(also referred to as Thymidine Triphosphate, TTP)

 

Nucleic Acids

 

2006 David G. Ward, PhD All rights reserved, Last modified 30 August, 2006